Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Ziziphus jujuba
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
XP_015866760.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015867528.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015868235.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015868249.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015873031.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015873053.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015875517.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015879406.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015879458.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015879661.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015883713.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015884625.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015889978.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015890801.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015895093.1ZF-HD family protein
XP_015897827.1ZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511